One Leg of an Immigrant’s Journey: Liverpool, England to NYC in 1852

The following departure day story was not passed down in the family and I don’t know if the story is the Schindler’s story. However with the help of newspapers and a few other sources I can paint a picture of that day in 1852.

Sightings of the Richard Morse.1

Map Route_update2

Liverpool, England 9 June 18522

The Departure
Original Sketch “The Departure.,” from The Illustrated London News, 6 July 1850.

The wind is light out of the east, southeast.3 Seagulls are circling above in the salt filled air. Deck hands are clamoring along the dock, releasing the ropes that tether the Richard Morse to shore, freeing her from her bonds to set sail on a new adventure. The air is thick with excitement and concern. A steam tug is pulling along side to tow the ship down the Mersey River to the shipping lane. Some of the passengers are waving good-by to their homeland, others are contemplating the long journey ahead. There is no going back.

Searching For Stowaways
Original sketch “Searching For Stowaways.,” from The Illustrated London News, 6 July 1850.

Before the ship is set free of the tug to continue on her long journey, 410 steerage passengers are called to the quarter deck. Parents are rounding up their children, a cacophony of accents can be heard English, Gaelic and German all swirling together. The passengers wait while the ships crew begins searching high and low, in every nook and cranny, with hammers and chisels, turning barrels and trunks upside down looking for stowaways. The emigrants are whispering among themselves, “Will they find a stowaway?” The search is complete and any stowaway found was put on the tug to face the Magistrate.

The Roll Call updated Blog
Original sketch “Quarter Deck of an Emigrant Ship.—The Roll Call.,” from The Illustrated London News, 6 July 1850.

Roll call begins. A clerk from the passenger broker and the ship’s surgeon perform this task. The clerk calls, “Joseph Schindler, Carolina Schindler, & family.” They approach the rail handing over their tickets, two full fare, two under 14 and two infants. The ship’s surgeon checks them over for any disabilities or deformities. The reason New York State charges a poll tax on every emigrant of $1.50 if any are helpless and deformed. In addition to the poll tax the ship owners are fined $75.00 ($2450.00 relative value in 2018)4 for emigrants that are helpless and deformed. If the emigrant cannot provide security and that he has friends or family in the US to take care of him the captain may refuse passage. With their tickets handed over and the surgeon’s blessing they are free to go below decks to their berths. Soon the ship sets sail and perhaps the most arduous part of of the journey begins, the 45 day transatlantic crossing.5

The Rest of the Story.

The Schindler family was from Kreis Frankenstein, Silesia, a part of the German Empire. After WWII Kreis Frankenstein became part of Dolnośląskie, Poland.6 The family can be found on a ship list departing Liverpool arriving in New York City on 23 July 1852.7

Ship List page 5_Schindlers BlogQuestions, oh so many questions are swirling in my mind.

• How did the Schindlers get from Silesia to Liverpool?
• Did they know what to expect along the way?
• Were they traveling with other family members or perhaps neighbors?
• How long were they in Liverpool before they sailed?
• Where did they stay?
• Did they book passage before they left Silesia?
• What was it like to sail across the Atlantic?

In my quest to find answers I started researching, looking for clues. Surprisingly, I found a number of resources beyond books written about an immigrants experience. Newspapers contain all sorts of information from the weather on the day of departure, to advertisements concerning the ships departure. Other ships may report a sighting along the route. England’s House of Commons held hearings on the treatment of immigrants in 1850 just two years before the Schindlers departed. Immigration was big business. There were regulations on both sides of the Atlantic. I can’t answer all of my questions but I can get a feel for their experience and perhaps make an educated guess or two.

Emigrants were advised to arrive in the city at least two days before departure–and you thought 2 hours before a flight was excessive.8  The earliest they would have been allowed to embark was 24 hours before the ship’s scheduled departure.9 Many ships did not allow passengers to embark until the day of sailing.10 Rarely did a ship set sail on its scheduled departure date. There were several reasons for why this might happen. The ship owners hadn’t filled the cargo hold or not enough passengers. At certain times of the year the weather was the biggest factor in why a ship didn’t depart on schedule. Tapscot adsIn the case of the Richard Morse, two “scheduled” days of departure were advertised. Neither one was the actual day of departure. The first was for 1 June11 and the second for 5 June.12

 

In 1853 J.B. Metzler’schen Buchh published a guide map for German emigrants.13 This guide showed the different routes a German emigrant could proceed from most places within the German Empire to America. Costs for different segments of the journey were also included. Emigrants Guide Map PageHistorical Background
1852 was a record breaking year for emigrants leaving from Liverpool, 229,099 souls left in 925 ships. Not less than 187, 962 of these souls set sail for the United States, about 31,600 were Germans.14 To put this in perspective the total population for New York City in 1850 was just over a half million.

During the 19th century Liverpool had a reputation for being the most criminally infested city in England. In 1850 the harassment and fraud perpetrated against emigrants was so bad that a Select Committee was convened by The House of Commons to take testimony and make recommendations for changing the Passengers’ Act of 1849.15: The primary perpetrators, known as “man catchers” or runners, used various forms of harassment and cons to swindle money from the emigrants. One method of harassment included taking an emigrant’s luggage in the guise of a porter and demanding payment for its return.16 As con artists they would gain an emigrants trust by any means available including sailing on a ship from Ireland and befriending an emigrant learning as much as they could about their background. Once onshore a partner in the con would use the information to sell the emigrant fraudulent tickets and/or tell them they needed unnecessary supplies for the journey to North America. The runners would get a percentage of these sales from the shopkeepers.17 It has been estimated that approximately 10 percent of the tickets sold were fraudulent.18 Other schemes included telling emigrants that their money was no good in America offering to exchange it for pennies on the dollar. The Irish more than any other ethnic group were more susceptible to the abuses of the runners and man catchers, primarily because most of the runners were themselves Irish and they plied their trade at the Liverpool docks, snatching the Irish emigrants when they disembarked from the ships that had carried them to Liverpool from Ireland.

The Germans, English and Scots tended to arrive in Liverpool by train. Germans leaving from Liverpool were traveling on an indirect route to America. The indirect route would take them from a port in Continental Europe to a port in England. “The most common indirect route was from Hamburg, (Germany) to Hull, (England).”19 Once in Hull the emigrants would board a train for another port city in England. “Most went to Liverpool.”20 “By 1852 the arrangements for German emigrants was “so complete that they find it both cheaper and more expeditious to cross over to England by steamer, and make their way to Liverpool, than to ship at the ports of their own county…”21

Frederick Sabel, was a Commission Merchant based in London who also conducted an emigration business in Liverpool.22 As a German, he originally opened his business to cater to German emigrants. He was similar to a modern day travel agent, taking care of most everything. In order to combat the abuses of the runners, Mr. Sabel opened a boarding house in January 1850. Located at 28 Moorfields, Liverpool23 and called Emigrants’ Home it was across the street from the Liverpool Exchange railway station also known as the Tithebarn station.24

TithebarnStreet Train Station Update
Original sketch “New Railway Station in Tithebarn Street, Liverpool.,” from The Illustrated London News, 4 May 1850

Mr. Sabel would engage passage with two or three of the passenger brokers/houses before the emigrants would arrive in Liverpool. He only dealt with those ship brokerage houses because of their reliability in sailing relatively on time. He would contract with emigrants to convey them from any part of the Continent to Hull where they would take the train to Liverpool. Mr. Sabel also employed an agent in Hull who contracted with emigrants providing transportation through to New York, everything included. Because Mr. Sabel had contracts with the railway companies, he could provide his services for less money than an emigrant could pay on his own. Another benefit was the emigrants were less susceptible to fraud and abuse.25 In 1852 Mr. Sabel handled 10,766 passengers just over a third of the estimated number of Germans departing Liverpool.26 Perhaps the Schindlers were among them.

THE SHIPS MANIFEST
There is some indirect evidence to suggest that the Schindlers may have been among Mr. Sabel’s passengers. At the very least they were part of a group of Germans traveling together. An analysis of the passenger list reveals more information.

Passengter Header_Right Page The first indication of something different is there is information not typically found or seen on other manifests from the same time period. The column titled “Died on Voyage” is lined out and Baggage was penned below.27 The baggage is a list of the number of boxes and number of beds. The “beds” are actually bed rolls and consist of blankets, quilts and or clothes rolled up and tied in a bundle.

Other ships arriving in New York from Liverpool prior to and just after the Richard Morse arrived do not have this alteration. Nor does the previous voyage and the subsequent voyage of the Richard Morse from Liverpool arriving in New York on 10 March 185228 and 16 August 1853.29 Comparing the three lists of the Richard Morse shows the following:

Crossing NY Arrival Date Master No. of German Passengers Altered List
10 March 1852 Eli Perry 0 No
23 July 1852 Eli Perry 99, familes & singles Yes
16 August 1853 Dinsmore 10, in 2 families No

On the Schindler list [yes, the pun is intended] all of the Germans are recorded one after the other except for one family, suggesting they were part of a larger group of Germans traveling together. The theory is further supported by comparing the list of passengers to Catholic church records from Kreis Frankenstein and various other records.

Side Bar
Kreis Frankenstein, Silesia is now located in Poland and is known as Ząbkowice Slaskie. Below is a list of the German towns with the current Polish name of the towns mentioned in the following discussion.

German Town Name Polish Town Name
Baumgarten Braszowice
Briesnitz Brzeznica
Frankenburg Przyłęk
Grochau Grochowa
Laubnitz   Lubanice
Paulwitz Pawlowice
Riegersdorf Potworów

A word about the Catholic parish records in Kreis Frankenstein. There are 27 parishes in Kreis Frankenstein.30 By and large the Family History Library has microfilms of all the parishes except for 8. With the exception of the Baumgarten Parish all of the records end about 1800. In addition to the earlier records Baumgarten’s registers contain baptismal records from 1800–1850. Marriages and burials overlap with the beginning of civil registration in 1874 and continue in some cases into the early 1900’s.
End Side Bar

Ship List page 4 & 5_Schindlers Blog 2nd imageDiscussion:
In addition to the Schindler family, two additional families and three single travelers have been positively identified in parish registers in Kreis Frankenstein, for a total of a 21 known passengers from the same area in Silesia.

The Schindler Family Lines 157–162

A little refresher on the composition of the Schindler family in 1852.
Joseph Schindler, age of 25 married the widow Carolina (Lux) Beck, age 26 on 26 September 1847.31

Children of Joseph & Carolina
1 Joseph Jerome Schindler born 10 January 1849 in Grochau.32
2 Mary Therese Schindler born 21 July 1850 in Riegersdorf.33
3 Albertine M Schindler born 16 September 1851 in Reigersdorf.34

Anna Schindler age 7 on line 159 of the ship list is not a child of Joseph & Carolina nor is she actually a Schindler. She is Carolina’s niece who was the illegitimate daughter of Carolina’s younger sister Veronica Anna Maria Johanna Lux. Anna was baptized as Anna Lux on 18 May 1844.35 

Riegersdorf is located in the parish of Briesnitz and at one time there was a parish register for the church in Riegersdorf. I know this because of a marginal note in a register located in Frankenberg that references the register from Riegersdorf.36 There are two baptismal registers and a marriage banns book located at the church in Frankenberg now Przyłęk, Poland which have not been microfilmed.

The Neughebaur Family lines 135–142

Joseph Franz Neugebauer was baptized 5 January 1808 at Baumgarten.37 He was the son of Joseph Neughebaur & Veronica Thomas. He died 9 August 1874 in Macomb County, Michigan.38

The ships list shows the second Franz as a male however it is more likely that this Franz is actually the first Franz’s wife Francisca and an error was made when the passenger list was filled out. Franz Neugebaurer married Francisca Barbara Hoppe 13 November 1832.39

Francisca Barbara Apolonia (sic) Hoppe was baptized 9 February 1810.40 She was the daughter of Franz Hoppe & Johanna Casper. She died 4 February 1871 in Macomb County Michigan.41

Children of Franz & Francisca from Baptismal registers & the ship list. Names in bold appear on the ship list.
1 Joseph Franz Laurenz Neugebaurer baptized 11 August 1833.42
2 Joseph Franz Robert Neugebaurer baptized 11 January 1835.43
3 Anna Johanna Neugebaurer baptized 2 July 1839.44
4  Johanna Francisca Neugebaurer baptized 1 August 1841.45
5 August Amand Neugebaurer baptized 12 May 1845.46 Died 19 July 1845.47
6 Anna Mathilde Bertha Neugebauer born 23 July 1846.48
7 Maria Neugebaurer
8 Matilde Neugebauer

One child from the baptismal register does not appear on the ship list. Johanna Francisca would have been about 13 in 1852. It is possible that Johanna remained in Silesia or that she died and is in one of the missing registers. Even though she is missing on the ship list it is not enough to suggest that the family is not correctly identified. Two daughters Maria & Matilde are not found in the baptismal register. Matilde would have been born sometime between June 1849 and June 1852. The baptismal register ends in December 1850. It is likely she was not born until after December 1850. It is possible that Maria was Johanna Theresia Maria baptized 10 June 1847. She was the daughter of Anton Neugebauer and his wife Theresia Kodwich and her godfather was Franz Neugebauer.49. It is possible that Maria’s parents sent her to America with her godfather for a chance at a better life.

The Lux Family lines 163–166

Florian Lux & Carolina (Lux) Schindler are first cousins. Florian was born 28 December 1825 in Frankenberg.50 He married Theresa Alke 5 February 1850 in Reigersdorf.51
Theresia Alke was born 27 December 1824.52

Children of Florian and Theresia in 1852.
1 Theresia Lux was born 2 December 1849.53
2 August Lux was born 24 December 1850.54

Singles On the List lines 147, 155 & 156

Line 147: Anton Alke was born 2 April 1820.55 He was a brother to the above Theresia Alke and was a godfather to her daughter Theresia.56 Anton and his wife moved from Cuyahoga County Ohio to Carver County Minnesota about the same time that Joseph Schindler & family moved from Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, Ohio to Carver County, Minnesota.

Line 155 Robert Spielman, tanner married Caroline Aust line 156 shortly after their arrival in America.

Robert “Speelman” was found on the 1860 U.S. census for Watertown Jefferson County, Wisconsin. He is enumerated with an apparent wife Caroline, age 31. The age and occupation for Robert corresponds to his age and occupation on the ships list. Wisconsin birth records for three of his children, Anna, Wilhelmina & Mary list there mother as Caroline Aust.57

1 Anna Spillman born 14 December 1854 in Watertown.58
2 Wilhelmina Spillman born 15 March 1862 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.59
3 Mary Spillman born 8 February 1868 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.60

Robert Spillman died in September 190661 and his wife Caroline died in February 1890.62 They are both buried in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Baptismal records for Robert and Caroline have not been found in the Baumgarten registers. However the surnames Spillman and Aust are prevalent in the parish of Frankenberg in Kreis Frankenstein.63 They are also likely from Kreis Frankenstein.

Additionally there is a connection between the Alke family and the Spillman family. On 15 July 1849 the third calling of banns occurred for Joseph Alke the son of Carl and Marianna Spillman daughter of Anton.64 Joseph is a brother of the Anton and Theresia Alke previously mentioned. Joseph and his wife Marianna remained in Silesia. Marianna died 24 September 1886 in Banau, Kreis Frankenstein.65

The Zeidel’s/Seidel lines 143–146 and lines 168–169

In the Baumgarten parish registers the name Zeidel is spelled Seidel. The name appears throughout the registers. Entires for the Seidel’s in the ship list have not been found. However there is one entry of particular interest that connects the Seidel’s to the Lux’s.
On 15 July 1849 Franz Seidel of Laubnitz, age 30 the son of Florian Seidel married Johanna Lux, age 22 of Paulwitz daughter of Joseph Lux.66 This marriage ties the Seidel’s to the Lux’s. Remember Joseph Schindler’s wife was Carolina Lux. Laubnitz is located in the Parish of Kamenz67 and is one of the parishes for which registers have not been microfilmed or located for the 1800’s.

The Geibels’ (Giebel) lines 170–175

The surname Giebel is tied to the Schindler family. Joseph and Carolina’s oldest child Joseph’s godfather was Joseph Giebel.68

The following table shows a comparison of the ship list to the parish registers. The evidence clearly shows that the Neughebaur family from the ship list is from the same area as the Schindler family.

TABLE OF AGES ON THE SHIP LIST VERSES KNOWN AGES

Ship list age Known Birth/Baptisms
Passenger List Age Calculate birth years Baptism Date/Birth Date Calculated Age at sailing
Franz Neugebaurer 44 June 1807– June 1808 5 Jan 1808 44
Franz Neugebaurer 42 June 1809– June 1810 9 Feb 1810 42
Joseph Neugebaurer 18 June 1833– June 1834 11 Aug 1833 18
Robert Neugebaurer 16 June 1835– June 1836 11 Jan 1835 16
Anna Neughebaur 12 June 1839– June 1840 2 July 1839 12
Bertha Neughebaur 6 June 1845– June 1846 23 July 1846 5y 9m
Maria Neughebaur 4 June 1847– June 1848 10 June 1847 4
Matilde Neughebaur Infant June 1849– June 1852 2 or under
Anton Alke 32 June 1819– June 1820 02 Apr 1820 32
Joseph Schindler 29 June 1822– June 1823 6 Nov 1821 30
Caroline Schindler 30 June 1821– June 1822 8 Aug 1821 30
Anna Schindler aka Lux 7 June 1844– June 1845 17 May 1844 8
Joseph Schindler 3 June 1848– June 1849 10 Jan1849 3
Maria Schindler Infant June 1849– June 1852 21 July 1850 1
Albertine Schindler Infant June 1849– June 1852 16 Sept 1851 9 m
Florian Lux 26 June 1825– June 1826 28 Dec 1825 26
Theresia Lux 26 June 1825– June 1826 27 Dec 1824 27
Theresia Lux 2y 6m Dec 1849– Jan 1849 2 Dec 1849 2 y 6 m
August Lux Infant June 1849– June 1852 24 Dec 1850 1

The ship list ages are consistent with known ages from various records. One age difference, Bertha Neughebaur can be explained because we don’t know the exact date the list was created. The other two, Joseph Schindler & Theresia Lux are only a year off and not of consequence. The two other families and several single passengers have been positively identified as coming from the same area as the Schindler’s. Several other surnames from the passenger list can be tied to the Schindler & Lux families. There is a strong probability that the passengers whose surnames appear in the available records are also from the same general area. Typically an agent employed by someone like Mr. Sabel would travel to towns and villages where they would advertise a transatlantic crossing. Placards were posted in taverns & other prominent places with times & dates of departure. The emigrants who wanted to go would gather at a central location on the specified date and time where the agent would take them to a port for departure. These agents were a bit like a Pied Piper. As the emigrantes traveled to the departure point the group would grow in size.

While I can’t say for certain that the Schindlers traveled as part of Mr. Sabel’s business the evidence strongly suggests they were part of a larger group of emigrants from the same general area.

Arriving in Liverpool

Once an emigrant arrived in Liverpool they were visually bombarded with placards containing notices advertising passage on the various packet ships, they thoroughly covered the walls of the city.  If emigrants hadn’t purchased their tickets prior to arriving they would need to find the best bargain they could for their passage. Competition between the passenger brokers was fierce, fares could very day by day or hour to hour, in 1850 prices for a ticket in steerage ranged from seventeen to twenty dollars for those 14 and older, and ten to fifteen dollars for children under 14.69 In 1852 Mr. Sabel charged about £5 5s, or about $25.73 although higher than just a ticket from Liverpool, Mr. Sabel’s fees included passage from Germany to America. Above and beyond the cost of the tickets he “supplied them board, lodging, bedding, cooking utensils plus 12s, [almost $3.00] worth of food above the legal allowance.”70

Before Embarkation

Regardless of whether the Schindlers arrived in Liverpool as part of Mr. Sabel’s emigration business, with another broker on there own, they still needed to have their tickets stamped by the medical inspectors office called the “Doctor’s Shop.”71

Medical Office Left Page
Original sketch “The Government Inspector’s Office,” from The Illustrated London News, 6 July 1850.

English law required that all passengers leaving be free from any contagious disease. After this examination the ticket was stamped to allow the passenger on to the ship. Mr. Sabel was a vocal opponent to the way these medical inspections were done. He felt that the whole process was a farce. “Monday morning is generally the busiest morning, and there are then sometimes 1,000 or more emigrants gathered together” “Now, there are two doctors employed in looking at the people’s tongues, and stamping their ticket as fast as they can; that is no inspection; they have no time to look into any serious matters.”72 Mr. Sabel goes on to say, “…but many diseases to which emigrants are subject cannot, by such and inspection, as it is called, be discovered, particularly diseases of the skin such and the Itch.”73 The Itch was the common term for scabies a contagious skin disease.74

 

The Ship Richard Morse.75
Richard Morese Right Page

The ship Richard Morse was a three mast sailing ship. Like many ships of the time the Richard Morse was painted with faux gun ports to frighten pirates.

 

LIFE ON BOARD

The crossing took 45 days. They would be filled with unpredictable weather, uncomfortable seas and the chores of daily life on-board a sailing ship.

Was the crossing one where they were treated humanely or one fraught with horrid conditions?
Did the owners of the ship comply with the applicable laws at the time or did they use subterfuge to skirt the law?
Were the seas rough or calm?

No I can’t answer any of these questions but I do know a bit about the ship.

The good news is that the Richard Morse had only made 3 transatlantic crossings prior to the Schindlers trip. An American ship, it first launched from Phippsburg, Maine on 19 June 1851, and was just under a year old when they set sail.76 The odds were in there favor that diseases like cholera and typhus hadn’t permeated the ship. The ships manifest indicates there were two births on the voyage and doesn’t indicate any deaths. It appears the owners did comply with the law and the passengers received their lawful provisions.

England’s Passenger Act of 1849 included a minimum amount of provisions that would be provided for each passenger.77

Sections 24 and 25 of the Act set the scale as follows:
• 3 quarts of water daily; this water was used for drinking and cooking.

The following amounts are the weekly amounts. The ship was required to provide these amounts for 10 weeks.

•2 1/2 pounds of bread or biscuit (not inferior navy biscuit) The navy biscuit was also known as hardtack. They were made with flour and water and baked 4 times making them extremely hard.
•1 pound wheaten flour
•5 pounds oatmeal
•2 lbs rice
•2 ounces tea
•1/2 pound sugar
•1/2 pound molasses

To be issued in advance, and not less often than twice a week. Five pounds of good potatoes may be at the option of the master substituted for one pound of oatmeal or rice.

The Passengers’ Act did not include bedding or cooking & eating utensils. However, section 26 did provide for a passenger cook, who was sea worthy, and cooking utensils if the vessel was carrying 100 or more passengers.78

There were no provisions for meat, vegetables or fruit in the British scale. The United States scale required “admitting one pound of salt meat per head per week, with a smaller allowance of bread stuffs than that specified by the British scale; and it likewise permits a deduction to be made from the ration issued to each passenger equivalent to the quantity of provision he may have brought on board himself, an arrangement the complication of which makes any evasion of it very difficult to prove.” “…a United States’ ship is therefore required at Liverpool to be provisioned according to the English scale, while at New York she is required, if the law be enforced, to have issued the American scale. Latterly, however, Your Committee are informed that the United States’ authorities have ceased to exact compliance with this part of their Act, and the English scale is admitted.”79

Under the English scale if an immigrant wanted meat, vegetables or fruit they had to bring them on board themselves. At this time I have not been able to determine which scale the Richard Morse adhered to, the United States scale or the English scale.

Between Decks Left Page
Original sketch “Emigration Vessel – Between Decks,” from The Illustrated London News, 10 May 1851.

From the passenger list we know the Schindlers traveled steerage. The berths for steerage passengers were located between decks sometimes referred to as “tween-deck.”80

 

 

 

Another ship, the Fædres Minde posted rules in 1853. Located in steerage they were as follows:81 Rules Left PageI don’t know about you but I would be hard pressed to comply with just about all of these Rules. You want me to clean and air out my own bedding and I have to be in bed by 22:00 hours!? It was certainly not like today’s transatlantic crossings. No time for relaxation must get the decks swabbed!

ARRIVAL IN THE UNITED STATES
Birds Eye View
82
New York Birds Eye ViewRight Page

The Schindler’s and company arrived in New York City 23 July 185283 docking at Dunham & Dimon.84

The Docks of New York in 185185
DocksLeft Page

Next stop Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, Ohio.

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  1. Ann C Gilchrest, “Ship Richard Morse Route 7 June –23 July 1852″ is a modified version of “N. Atlantic Ocean,” David Rumsey Map Collection (http://www.davidrumsey.com: accessed 31 October 2014); citing Alexander Johnston, Basin of the North Atlantic Ocean (Edinburgh & London: William Blackwood & Sons. 1861), p. 4. The map was modified by cropping and adding location markers. The ship images used for location markers were created by Eric Fritz. “Old Ships:” Vintage Vectors (http://vintagevectors.com: accessed 31 October 2014). Date citations right to left. Location date 9 June 1852. “Shipping Intelligence, Wednesday, June 9.” article, Liverpool Mercury (Liverpool, Merseyside, England), 11 June 1852, p. 7, col. 6; The British NewspaperArchive (http://britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk : accessed 9 November 2014). “sailed…Richard Morse.’ Location date 11 June 1852. “Express Marine List. Memoranda,” article, New York, Evening Express, (New York, NY), 24 July 1852, unpaginated 4th page. col. 7; Old Fulton New York Post Cards (http://fultonhistory.com : accessed 23 October 2014), PDF “New York NY Evening Express 1852- 0391.” “The ship Richard Morse, from Liverpool, reports June 11th, in the British Channel.” [The British Channel is thought to refer to the St. George Channel or the Bristol Channel.] Location date 14 June 1852. “Spoken &c.,” article, New York Daily Tribune, 9 July 1852, p. 7. col. 6; Old Fulton New York Post Cards (http://fultonhistory.com: accessed 23 October 2014). PDF “New York Tribune 1852 Jun – Sep Grayscale – 0277.” “June 14, lat. 47 5-1. long. 15 50W, ship Richard Morse. Perry. from Liverpool for New York.” Location date 10 July 1852. “Marine Journal Arrived,” New York Daily Tribune, 20 July 1852. p. 8. col. 5; Old Fulton New York Post Cards (http://fultonhistory.com : accessed 23 October 2014), PDF “New York Tribune 1852 Grayscale -0350.” “10th Lat. 4405. Lon. 57 53. saw ships Richard Morse and…. bound west.” Location date 23 July 1852. “New York Passenger Lists. 1820-1957.” digital images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com: accessed 3 September 2010), passenger manifest Richard Morse, Liverpool, England to New York City, New York, arriving 23 July 1852. list 1005; citing “Passenger Lists of Vessels Arriving at New York, New York, 1820-1897.” NARA publication M237. roll 117. 
  2. “Shipping Intelligence, Wednesday, June 9,” article, Liverpool Mercury (Liverpool, Merseyside, England), 11 June 1852, p. 7, col. 6; The British Newspaper Archive, (http://britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk : accessed 9 November 2014). The Richard Morse sailed Wednesday, 9 June. 
  3. Ibid. 
  4. Lawrence H. Officer, “Dollar-Pound Exchange Rate From 1791,” MeasuringWorth, (https://www.measuringworth.com/calculators/uscompare/ : accessed 21 March 2018). 
  5. The number of days was calculated from the departure date of 9 June and the arrival date of 23 July 1852. 
  6. Ann C Gilchrest, “European Origins of Joseph Schindler and Carolina Lux of Carver County, Minnesota,” Minnesota Genealogist, Summer 2013, Vol. 44, No. 2, p. 12–22. 
  7. “New York Passenger Lists, 1820–1957,” digital images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 3 September 2010), passenger manifest Richard Morse, Liverpool England to New York City, New York, arriving 23 July 1852, list 1005, lines, 157–162; citing Passenger Lists of Vessels Arriving at New York, New York, 1820–1897, NARA publication M237, roll 117. 
  8. “The journey-to-Ellis-Island, New York,” Irish Genealogy Toolkit (http://www.irish-genealogy-toolkit.com : accessed 27 November 2104), path >Genealogy>Emigration>The journey-to-Ellis-Island, New York. 
  9. “The Tide of Emigration to the United States and to the British Colonies ” The Illustrated London News, 6 July 1850. 
  10. “Liverpool and Emigration in the 19th and 20th Centuries,” Sheet number 64, National Museums Liverpool, Merseyside Maritime Museum (http://liverpoolmuseums.org.uk : accessed 7 December 2014), path Archives> Information sheets> Emigration. 
  11. “Tapscott’s American Emigration Office, St. George’s Buildings, Regent Road.” advertisement, Sheffield & Rotherham (England) Independent, 15 May 1852, p. 4 col. 3. Advertised departure 1 June. 
  12. “Marine Journal Foreign Ports,” article, New York, Daily Tribune (NYC), 19 June 1852, p. 8, col. 3; digital images, Old Fulton New York Post Cards (http://fultonhistory.com : accessed 23 October 2014). 
  13. Gotthelf Zimmermann, Auswanderer-karte und wegweiser nach Nordamerika, (Stuttgart: J.B. Metzler’schen Buchh, 1853), Map; Library of Congress (https://www.loc.gov/item/98687132/ : accessed 8 December 2014). 
  14. “Emigration From Liverpool in 1852 (From the Liverpool Times),” The Maitland (Australia) Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser, 15 June 1853, p. 2 col. 4-5; Trove Digitised [sic] newspapers and more (http://trove.nla.gov.au : accessed 13 November 2014). 
  15. Report From the Select Committee on the Passengers’ Act, with the proceedings of the Committee, Minutes of Evidence, Appendix and Index (Great Britain: Irish Academic Press, 1851); digital images, Google Books (http://googlebooks.com : accessed 14 November 2014). 
  16. Michael Macilwee, The Liverpool Underworld: Crime in the City, 1750-1900 (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2011), p. 141–145. 
  17. Ibid. 
  18. Ibid. 
  19. Gary T Horlacher, Using Hamburg Passenger Lists, (http://web.archive.org/web/20131224121517/http://www.progenealogists.com/germany/articles/hambpl.htm : accessed October 2014: ProGenealogists: 2000). “Methods of Travel” European Emigration (http:www.european-emigration.com : accessed 31 October 2014) path, England >5th page. 
  20. Ibid. 
  21. “Emigration From Liverpool in 1852 (From the Liverpool Times),” The Maitland (Australia) Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser, 15 June 1853, p. 2 col. 4-5; Trove Digitised [sic] newspapers and more (http://trove.nla.gov.au : accessed 13 November 2014). 
  22. Great Britain House of Commons, Reports From the Select Committees, Volume 13 (Great Britain: Irish Academic Press, 1851), p. 407–435, Testimony of Frederic Sabel to the Select Committee on the Passengers’ Act, 20 June 1851; digital images, Google Books (http://googlebooks.com : accessed 21 March 2018). 
  23. Gore’s Directory of Liverpool and its Environs, 1853 (Liverpool, England: J Mawdsley & Son, 1853), p. 526, digital image 532; University of Leicester, Special Collections Online (http://specialcollections.le.ac.uk/cdm/ : accessed 19 March 2018). 
  24. Landry Préteseille, The Irish Emigrant Trade to North America 1845-1855, Part II Getting On Board An Emigrant Ship (Master’s thesis, Université Rennes 2, Rennes, France, 1999), p. 33; Denny Hatch (http://www.dennyhatch.com/jackcorbett/doc/irishemigration.pdf : accessed 15 November 2014). 
  25. Great Britain House of Commons, Reports From the Select Committees, Volume 13 (Great Britain: Irish Academic Press, 1851), p. 407-435, Testimony of Frederic Sabel to the Select Committee on the Passengers’ Act, 20 June 1851; digital images, Google Books (http://googlebooks.com : accessed 21 March 2018). 
  26. “Emigration From Liverpool in 1852 (From the Liverpool Times),” The Maitland (Australia) Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser, 15 June 1853, p. 2 col. 4–5; Trove Digitised [sic] newspapers and more (http://trove.nla.gov.au : accessed 13 November 2014). 
  27. “New York Passenger Lists, 1820–1957,” digital images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com/ : accessed 3 September 2010), passenger manifest Richard Morse, Liverpool, England to New York City, New York, arriving 23 July 1852, list 1005, “Passenger Lists of Vessels Arriving at New York, New York, 1820–1897,” NARA publication M237, roll 117. 
  28. “New York Passenger Lists, 1820–1957,” digital images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com/ : accessed 14 November 2014), passenger manifest Richard Morse, Liverpool, England to New York City, New York, arriving 10 March 1852, list 184; “Passenger Lists of Vessels Arriving at New York, New York, 1820–1897,” NARA publication M237, roll 117. Master Eli Perry. Passengers all from Great Britain. 
  29. “New York Passenger Lists, 1820–1957,” digital images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com/ : accessed 14 November 2014), passenger manifest Richard Morse, Liverpool, England to New York City, New York, arriving 16 August 1853, list 847A; “Passenger Lists of Vessels Arriving at New York, New York, 1820–1897,” NARA publication M237, roll 117. Master Dinsmore, 2 German families with 10 souls. 
  30. Kevin M Hansen, Map Guide to German Parish Registers, Kingdom of Prussia – Provice of Silesia II Regierungsbezirk Breslau (Orting, Washington: Family Roots Publishing 2016), p. 328. 
  31. Baumgarten Parish (Kreis Frankenstein, Silesia), Heiraten 1800–1872, unpaginated, 1847, no. 20, Joseph Schindler & Carolina Beck nee Lux , 28 September; FHL microfilm 1456638. Marriage entry is recorded on the left page, the marriage number is recorded on the right page. 
  32. Baumgarten Parish (Kreis Frankenstein, Silesia), Taufens [Baptisms] 1826–1850, 1849, p. 2, no. 6, Joseph Hieronimus Schindler, 14 January; FHL microfilm 1456638. Baptism is recorded on the left page, the Baptism number is recorded on the right page. 
  33. Mary (Schindler) Sondag funeral card, cites maiden name, birth & death dates & locations, marriage date and husband; Funeral Artifacts, privately held by Ann C Gilchrest, 2018. 
  34. Guardian Angels Catholic Church (Chaska, Minnesota), Church Census, family no. 59, Josephus Schindler; parish rectory who retains custody. The census is written in Latin. 
  35. Baumgarten Parish (Kreis Frankenstein, Silesia), Taufen 1800–1831, 1844, p. 8, no. 46, Anna Lux, 19 May; FHL microfilm 1456637, item 2. Baptism entry is recorded on the left page, the baptism number is recorded on the right page. 
  36. Catholic Church (Przyłęk, Poland), Sacramental Register, unknown volume, p. 18, Baptism, no. 109, Theresa Alke, 1849; Parish rectory. A photograph of this page was taken by Ann C Gilchrest in 2007. 
  37. Baumgarten Parish (Kreis Frankenstein, Silesia), Taufen 1800–1831, unpaginated, 1808 no. 2, Joseph Franz Ludwig Neugebaur, 5 January; FHL microfilm 1456637, item 2. Baptism entry is recorded on the left page, the baptism number is recorded on the right page. 
  38. Find A Grave, database (https://findagrave.com : accessed 12 March 2018), entry for Franz Joseph Neugebauer (1806–1874) Memorial no. 107881801, maintained by Louise (Bruman) Dice (contributor 47123865); citing Saint Clement Cemetery, Center Line, Macob County, Michigan, USA. 
  39. Baumgarten Parish (Kreis Frankenstein, Silesia), Heiraten 1800–1872, unpaginated, 1823 no. 26, Franz Neugebauer & Francisca Hopp, 13 November; FHL microfilm 1456638, item 2. Marriage entry is recorded on the left page, the marriage number is recorded on the right page. 
  40. Baumgarten Parish (Kreis Frankenstein, Silesia), Taufen 1800–1831, unpaginated, 1810 no. 8, Francisca Barbara Apolonia Hoppe, 9 February; FHL microfilm 1456637, item 2. Baptism entry is recorded on the left page, the baptism number is recorded on the right page. 
  41. Find A Grave, database (https://findagrave.com : accessed 12 March 2018), entry for Frances Hoppe Neugebauer (1808–1871) Memorial no. 107819585, maintained by Louise (Bruman) Dice (contributor 47123865); citing Saint Clement Cemetery, Center Line, Macomb County, Michigan, USA.” 
  42. Baumgarten Parish (Kreis Frankenstein, Silesia), Taufen 1831–1850, p. 282, no. 66, Joseph Franz Ludwig Neugebauer, 11 August 1833; FHL microfilm 1456638, item 1. Baptism entry is recorded on the left page, the baptism number is recorded on the right page. 
  43. Baumgarten Parish (Kreis Frankenstein, Silesia), Taufen 1831–1850, p. 344, no. 6, Joseph Franz Robert Neugebauer, 11 January 1835; FHL microfilm 1456638, item 1. Baptism entry is recorded on the left page, the baptism number is recorded on the right page. 
  44. Baumgarten Parish (Kreis Frankenstein, Silesia), Taufen 1831–1850, p. 532, no. 54, Anna Johanna Neugebauer, 2 July 1839; FHL microfilm 1456638, item 1. Baptism entry is recorded on the left page, the baptism number is recorded on the right page. 
  45. Baumgarten Parish (Kreis Frankenstein, Silesia), Taufen 1831–1850, p. 620, no. 64, Johann Francisca Neugebauer, 1 August 1841; FHL microfilm 1456638, item 1. Baptism entry is recorded on the left page, the baptism number is recorded on the right page. 
  46. Baumgarten Parish (Kreis Frankenstein, Silesia), Taufen 1831–1850, p. 768, no. 91, August Amand Neugebauer, 12 May 1845; FHL microfilm 1456638, item 1. Baptism entry is recorded on the left page, the baptism number is recorded on the right page. Marginal note died 19 July 1845. 
  47. Baumgarten Parish (Kreis Frankenstein, Silesia), Totes 1800-1857, unpaginated, 1845, no. 36, August Neugebauer, burial 22 July; FHL microfilm 1456639, item 2. 
  48. Baumgarten Parish (Kreis Frankenstein, Silesia), Taufen 1831–1850, 1846, p. 10, no. 53, Anna Mathilda Bertha Neugebauer, baptism 26 July; FHL microfilm 1456638, item 1. Baptism entry is recorded on the left page, the baptism number is recorded on the right page. 
  49. Baumgarten Parish (Kreis Frankenstein, Silesia), Taufen 1831–1850, 1847, p. 8, no. 36, Johanna Theresia Maria Neugebauer, baptism 10 June; FHL microfilm 1456638, item 1. Baptism entry is recorded on the left page, the baptism number is recorded on the right page. 
  50. Saint John the Baptist Catholic Church (Jordan, Minnesota), “St. John’s Parish Census Book (Old) with an Index,” p. 34, entry for Lux, Florianus (Latin entries, arranged in family groups); this book is informally referred to as “family books” by the Parish Office, which holds custody. 
  51. Catholic Church (Przyłęk, Poland), Sacramental Register, unknown volume, p. 18, Baptism, no. 109, Theresa Alke, 1849; Parish rectory. Marginal note: The illegitimate daughter Theresa following the marriage of her mother to the cottagers son Florian Lux was legitimized as a legitimate child in Riegersdorf . Marriage book volume 3, p. 215 no. 5. 
  52. Saint John the Baptist Catholic Church (Jordan, Minnesota), “St. John’s Parish Census Book (Old) with an Index,” p. 34, entry for Lux, Florianus (Latin entries, arranged in family groups); this book is informally referred to as “family books” by the Parish Office, which holds custody. 
  53. Catholic Church (Przyłęk, Poland), Sacramental Register, unknown volume, p. 18, Baptism, no. 109, Theresa Alke, 1849; Parish rectory. 
  54. Saint John the Baptist Catholic Church (Jordan, Minnesota), “St. John’s Parish Census Book (Old) with an Index,” p. 34, entry for Lux, Florianus (Latin entries, arranged in family groups); this book is informally referred to as “family books” by the Parish Office, which holds custody. 
  55. Find A Grave, database (https://findagrave.com : accessed 12 March 2018), entry for Frances Hoppe Neugebauer (1820–1897) Memorial no. 151948106, maintained by Gayle (contributor no. 47747536); citing Saint Clement Cemetery, Center Line, Macomb County, Michigan, USA. 
  56. Catholic Church (Przyłęk, Poland), Sacramental Register, unknown volume, p. 18, Baptism, no. 109, Theresa Alke, 1849; Parish rectory. 
  57. 1860 U.S. Census Jefferson County, Wisconsin, population schedule, Watertown Ward 2, p.3691 (penned), dwelling 340, family 334, Robert Spealman household; digital images, Ancestry (http://ancestry.com : accessed 17 March 2018); citing NARA microfilm publication M653, roll 1413. 
  58. “Wisconsin Births and Christenings, 1826–1926,“ database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org : accessed 19 March 2018), Anna Speelman, 14 December 1854 Watertown, Jefferson County, Wisconsin. Father Robert Speelman, Mother Caroline Aust. 
  59. “Wisconsin Births and Christenings, 1826–1926,“ database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org : accessed 19 March 2018), Wilhelmina Speelman, 15 March 1862, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Father Robert Speelman, Mother Caroline Aust. 
  60. “Wisconsin Births and Christenings, 1826–1926,“ database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org : accessed 19 March 2018), Wilhelmina Speelman, 08 February 1868, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Father Robert Speelman, Mother Caroline Aust. 
  61. Find A Grave, database (https://findagrave.com : accessed 12 March 2018), entry for Robert Spillman (1826–September 1906) Memorial no. 184352623, maintained by Phillip (contributor no. 46971271); citing Calvary Cemetery and Mausoleum, Block 6, Section B, Lot 37N, Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, Wisconsin, USA. 
  62. Find A Grave, database (https://findagrave.com : accessed 12 March 2018), entry for Carolina Spilmann (1826–1890) Memorial no. 184352625, maintained by Phillip (contributor no. 46971271); citing Calvary Cemetery and Mausoleum, Block 6, Section B, Lot 37N, Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, Wisconsin, USA. 
  63. “Local heritage book Frankenberg List of Surnames,” database, genealogy.net genealogienetz.de (http://compgen.de/ : accessed 18 March 2018), path >databases > local heritage books > Frankenberg. 
  64. Catholic Church (Przyłęk, Poland), Sacramental Register, marriage banns volume, 1, 8, 15 July 1849 between Joseph Alke and Marianna Spillman; Parish rectory. 
  65. “Local heritage book Frankenberg List of Surnames,” database, genealogy.net genealogienetz.de (http://compgen.de/ : accessed 18 March 2018), path >databases > local heritage books > Frankenberg, Family Report Marianna Spillman. 
  66. Baumgarten Parish (Kreis Frankenstein, Silesia), Heiraten 1800–1872, unpaginated, 1849 no. 13, Franz Seidel to Johanna Lux, 15 July; FHL microfilm 1456638, item 2. Marriage entry is recorded on the left page, the marriage number is recorded on the right page. 
  67. Kevin M Hansen, Map Guide to German Parish Registers, Kingdom of Prussia – Provice of Silesia II Regierungsbezirk Breslau (Orting, Washington: Family Roots Publishing 2016), p. 329. 
  68. Baumgarten Parish (Kreis Frankenstein, Silesia), Taufens [Baptisms] 1826–1850, 1849, p. 2, no. 6, Joseph Hieronimus Schindler, 14 January; FHL microfilm 1456638. Baptism is recorded on the left page, the Baptism number is recorded on the right page. 
  69. Thomas W Page, “The Transportation of Immigrants and Reception Arrangements in the Ninetieth Century,” Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 19, No. 9 (November 1911) p. 732-749; JSTSOR (http://www.jstor.org/stable/1820349 : accessed 10 November 2014). 
  70. Lawrence H. Officer, “Dollar-Pound Exchange Rate From 1791,” MeasuringWorth (http://www.measuringworth.com/exchangepound/ : accessed 14 November 2014); Exchange rate for the year 1852, £1 pound = $4.90. “Purchasing Power of Money in the United States from 1774 to Present” $25.73 would be approximately $800.00 in 2013. 
  71. “Abstract of the New Passenger Act, 12 & 13 Vic, cap. 33…,” Colonization Circular, (Great Britain : Colonial Land And Emigration Commissioners,1849), Issue 9, 2nd edition, 31 July 1849, p. 22. 
  72. Ibid. 
  73. Great Britain House of Commons, Reports From the Select Committees, Volume 13 (Great Britain: Irish Academic Press, 1851), p. 407-435, Testimony of Frederic Sabel to the Select Committee on the Passengers’ Act, 20 June 1851; digital images, Google Books (http://googlebooks.com : accessed 21 March 2018). 
  74. “Pyrate Medicine: The Itch,” Pirates of the Caribbean (http://pirates.hegewisch.net/pirates.html : accessed 27 November 2014); last updated 12 August 2011. 
  75. Painting of the Ship Richard Morse, photographed by Robert McEachron, The American Neptune, vol. XXVII (January 1967): plate VII. Original painting unsigned. 
  76. “Marine Journal, Launches,” article, New York, Daily Tribune (NYC), 2 August 1851, p. 8, col. 5; Old Fulton New York Post Cards (http://fultonhistory.com/ : accessed 11 November 2014), PDF, “New York NY Tribune 1851 Jul – Oct Grayscale – PDF 0145.” 
  77. “Abstract of the New Passenger Act, 12 & 13 Vic, cap. 33…,” Colonization Circular, (Great Britain : Colonial Land And Emigration Commissioners, 1849), Issue 9, 2nd edition, 31 July 1849, p. 22. 
  78. “Emigration From Liverpool in 1852 (From the Liverpool Times),” The Maitland (Australia) Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser, 15 June 1853, p. 2 col. 4-5; Trove Digitised [sic] newspapers and more (http://trove.nla.gov.au : accessed 13 November 2014). 
  79. Great Britain House of Commons, Reports From the Select Committees, Volume 13 (Great Britain: Irish Academic Press, 1851), p. XXV, Summary of the Select Committee on the Passengers’ Act, 20 June 1851; digital images, Google Books (http://googlebooks.com : accessed 21 March 2018). 
  80. Borge Solem, “Steerage Passengers – Emigrants Between Decks,” Norway-Heritage (http://www.norwayheritage.com/ : accessed 10 November 2014). 
  81. Articles for Newbies:, “By Sail – daily life,” Norway – Heritage (http://www.norwayheritage.com/: accessed 26 November 2014). 
  82.  Wikimedia (https://commons.wikimedia.org), ” Birds-eye view of New York, 1851,” rev. 11:05, 18 July 2016. 
  83. “New York Passenger Lists, 1820–1957,” digital images, Ancestry (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 3 September 2010), passenger manifest Richard Morse, Liverpool England to New York City, New York, arriving 23 July 1852, list 1005, lines, 157–162; citing Passenger Lists of Vessels Arriving at New York, New York, 1820–1897, NARA publication M237, roll 117. 
  84.  “Marine Intelligence. Arrived,” article, New York Times, 24 July 1852, unpaginated 4th page, col. 4; Old Fulton New York Post Cards (http://fultonhistory.com : accessed 23 October 2014), PDF “New York NY Times 1852 Jul-Oct 0080.” “Ship Richard Morse, (of Bath) Perry, Liverpool, June 10, mdse and 409 passengers to Dunham & Dimon.” 
  85.  Carl C Cutler, Queens of the Western Ocean The Story of America’s Mail and Passenger Sailing Lines (Annapolis, Maryland: United States Naval Institue, 1961), flyleaf. 

One thought on “One Leg of an Immigrant’s Journey: Liverpool, England to NYC in 1852

  1. An entertaining, informative story. Frederick Sabel, the London-based emigration broker, seems like the kind of man who would appear in a Dickens novel: a decent, fair man surrounded by rascals and con men. Thanks for a great read.

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